Approximately three percent of bats carry the rabies virus. The most common signs of rabies in bats are the inability to fly and resting in unusual places such as the ground or floor. It is important to remember many of the bats that get into our homes are healthy bats and are looking for a way out.
Bats are nocturnal animals and feed most actively two to three hours following sunset. They are efficient pest controllers as they consume three times their body weight in insects per night. Bats select attics for nursery colonies, however, during the day they roost in trees and in buildings. Bats are usually born in June. Nests are not required as the young are able to fly and obtain their own food within three weeks. Hibernation occurs between November and March. Some species typically hibernate in attics of buildings while others prefer caves.
Diseases Bats May Carry
Bats do have the potential to carry diseases such as rabies and histoplasmosis, which can affect humans and animals. They may also transmit distemper and mange to household pets.
- Rabies is a disease caused by a virus that attacks the central nervous system, and is found in the saliva of infected animals. Rabies is fatal if left untreated.
- Histoplasmosis is a disease caused by a fungus that grows in soil contaminated with bat or bird droppings. Exposure to the fungus occurs when the soil is disturbed. The disease primarily affects the lungs and can be fatal if left untreated. If you are cleaning areas where bat droppings have accumulated be sure to wear a protective mask and gloves and keep dust to a minimum.
Bat exposures: If a bat is carrying the rabies virus, there is a risk of it being transmitted to an individual when both the following conditions apply:
- There has been direct contact with a bat – direct contact with a bat is defined as the bat touching or landing on a person; AND
- A bite, scratch, or saliva exposure into a wound or mucous membrane. If you are bitten by a bat or if saliva from a bat gets into your eyes, nose, mouth or a wound, wash the affected area thoroughly and get medical attention immediately. If the bat is available, the Health Unit can arrange for it to be tested for rabies.
In a child, any direct contact with a bat (i.e., the bat landing on or touching the child, including contact through clothes) could be considered a reason for vaccine administration, as a child may not be able to reliably communicate the encounter with the bat to determine the type of the contact (i.e., a bite, scratch or mucous membrane exposure).
Bat Proofing Your Home
Bat proofing your house is necessary when the bats are entering the living space of your home. It is advisable to contact a pest management company or a wildlife conservation agency for assistance with bat-proofing your home.
If you find a bat in your home and there was no human or animal contact, the bat can be released to the outdoors. Wear thick gloves when handling the bat to avoid being bitten.
Rabies can also affect pets; to protect your pet from rabies it is important to vaccinate them. Rabies vaccination is mandatory in Ontario for domestic cats and dogs. The Health Unit, in partnership with local Veterinarians and Municipalities, will be holding the annual Low-Cost Rabies Vaccination Clinics; please visit our website in later in August for more information about our Rabies Clinics cost, times and locations.
- Bats – Health Canada https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/pest-control-tips/bats.html
- Keeping Bats Out of Your House – Centers of Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/bats/management/index.html
- Ministry of Natural Resources https://www.ontario.ca/page/ministry-natural-resources-and-forestry
- Bat Conservation International http://www.batcon.org/